3 edition of Single-Velocity Method in Measuring Discharge. found in the catalog.
Single-Velocity Method in Measuring Discharge.
Canada. Environment Canada. Inland Waters Directorate.
|Series||IWD technical bulletin -- 75|
|Contributions||Strilaeff, P.W., Bilozor, W.|
5) Measure the concentration evolution during the whole tracer transit. 6) Calculate Q. Velocity-area method with current-meter Principle: Discharge is obtained by calculating the integral of the stream velocity @ over the cross-section area of the flow A, where @ is measured perpendicular to the cross-section:[email protected] *B (3). High accuracy is obtainable with this method, and its use is recommended. However, the method should not be used where the depth is less than 2 ft. The six-tenths-depth method consists of measuring the velocity at of the depth from the water surface and is generally used for shallow flows where the two-point method is not applicable.
The average velocity can be determined by multiplying the velocity at the top of the cross-sectional flow by (Vavg = Vfloat x ). To determine the discharge, you will need to measure the area of flow in the channel and multiply times the average velocity (discharge = velocity x area). Accessories: Daily Log Book; Float and stopwatch. The usual method of making a discharge measurement is explained in Figure on the next page, which shows the cross-section of a channel. IMPORTANT: All flow measurements (location, depth, velocity) should be taken in units of feet as the goal is a total discharge .
reading. If the discharger's flow measurement system is accurate within 10 percent of the actual flow, + the investigator can use the existing system. If non-standard primary flow devices are being used, data supporting the accuracy and precision of the methods being employed should be provided by the permittee. For example â€“ measure a distance, X, of 24 inches across the top of the flowing discharge from the end of a 2 inch diameter pipe. Then measure vertically to the top of the liquid discharge, Y, say it is 25 inches. Then by the formula, the flow in the pipe in gallons per minute is: times 24 times 2 squared divided by the square root.
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The total discharge of the stream is the sum of such computations for the entire cross-section. Method # Method: In this method a straight and uniform section of the stream or river is selected and a float, which may be a closed bottle, is let through the centre of the runs of the river and the time taken by the float to move through a known length of the river is recorded.
Get this from a library. Single-velocity method in measuring discharge. [P W Strilaeff; W Bilozor]. (iii) By chemical method. Measurement of Discharge by Area-Velocity Method: Fig. shows the section of a stream. The velocities are different at different points on the section. The velocity varies from point to point depending on a number of factors like the shape of the section, the roughness of the bed of the stream and the depth of flow.
The discharge measurement—obtaining periodic measurements of discharge The most common method used by the USGS for measuring velocity is with a current meter. However, a variety of advanced equipment can also be used to sense stage and measure streamflow. In the simplest method, a current meter turns with the flow of the river or stream.
Comparison of methods Summary of discharge measurements at Millstone River at Blackwells Mills, NJ on during field training exercise [* velocity too slow to measure] Cross section Flowtracker Pygmy meter Floatation Method Culvert Computation Percent Difference Ideal cross section - 4 - 6%.
There are three ways to measure discharge. A simple method is to see how fast a floating object travels downstream over a chosen distance. This is called the float method.
(VHR) is a fast and inexpensive method of measuring velocity in a stream. The rod can be a yardstick or meter stick, or it can be made using a 3 - 6 foot long, very thin. The actual measurements are recorded on the second page of the Discharge-Measurement Notes form. If the six-tenths-depth method is used to measure average velocity, all the information measured at a vertical can be recorded on a single line.
If the two-tenths-and. Measurement of peak discharge by the slope-area method, by Tate Dahymple and M.A. Benson. 12 pages. Measurement of peak discharge at culverts by indirect methods, by G.L. Bodhaine.
60 pages. Measurement of peak discharge at width contractions by indirect methods, by H.F. Matthai. 44 pages. Streamgages do not measure streamflow directly. Rather, streamflow monitoring involves several steps, which generally include (1) continuously measuring and recording the stage of a stream, (2) periodically taking discharge measurements in the stream, (3) developing the relation between stage and discharge for the site and applying this relation to the continuous stage.
Based on the entropy theory, a linear relationship exists between mean channel velocity and the maximum velocity in the channel, allowing discharge to be estimated from a single velocity measurement [Xia, ; Moramarco et al., ].
experimentally determined coefficient of discharge. The actual discharge will then be given by: The coefficient of discharge varies with both the Reynolds number and area ratio. Typical values for a machined venturi meter are between and (3) Orifice plate The orifice flow meter consists of a 20mm bore tube with an orifice of 12mm.
Thus the water discharge of a tap (faucet) can be measured with a measuring jug and a stopwatch. Here the discharge might be 1 litre per 15 seconds, equivalent to 67 ml/second or 4 litres/minute. This is an average measure. For measuring the discharge of a river we need a different method and the most common is the 'area/velocity' method.
This test method covers the detection and measurement of partial discharge (corona) pulses at the terminals of an insulation system under an applied test voltage, including the determination of partial discharge (corona) inception and extinction voltages as the test voltage is raised and lowered.
This test method is also useful in determining quantities such as apparent. by Greve () should be used, rather than the California pipe method. The Purdue method applies equally well to both partially and completely filled pipes. The Purdue method consists of measuring coordinates of the upper surface of the jet as shown above.
The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important.
Discharge measurement made from a footbridge with a ft wading rod. Measurement of Velocity: The current meter measures velocity at a point.
The method of making discharge measurements at a cross section requires determination of the mean velocity in each of the selected verticals. This technique is used to measure the discharge or flow for tube well or pipe sections.
It is very simple and easy method to measure. It has basic three essential requirements for discharge determination. Inside diameter of the pipe Measurement of X-coordinate of flow (horizontal distance measur. The tracer-dilution methods of measuring discharge are more dif- ficult to use than the conventional current-meter method, and under most conditions the results are less reliable.
Dilution methods should therefore not be used when conditions are favorable for a current- meter measurement of discharge. The discharge is derived from the sum of the product of mean velocity, depth and width between verticals.
The discharge so obtained is normally used to establish a relation between water level (stage) and streamflow. Once established, this stage-discharge relation is used to derive discharge values from records of stage at the gauging station.
for ﬂ ood periods. The method used to calculate sediment-discharge records is dependent on the types and frequency of available data. Records for suspended-sediment discharge computed by methods described by Porterﬁ eld () are most prevalent, in part because measurement protocols and computational techniques are well established and because.
Chapter A2: Measurement of peak discharge by the slope-area method, by Tate Dalrymple and M.A. Benson: USGS—TWRI Book 3, Chapter A2. Chapter A3: Measurement of peak discharge at culverts by indirect methods, by G.L.
Bodhaine: USGS—TWRI Book .measurement of the distance from a fixed overhead point to the water surface, e.g., using a weighted wire or tape lowered from a bridge beam. Stage-Discharge Curves Simple manual stage measurements can give a rough qualitative indication of the magnitude of discharge (caution: the relationship between stage and discharge is not linear).discussion of the more common methods of watcr measurement together with descriptions of the devices used and useful tables or graphs.
Water measurement is based on fundamental principles of hydraulics, but the practical application of .